Can You Compost Citrus: Myths, Facts, and Best Practices

  • By: Sam Richards
  • Date: July 17, 2023
  • Time to read: 11 min.

Composting is an effective strategy for reducing household waste while simultaneously producing a rich, organic material beneficial for gardening and soil enrichment. However, when it comes to composting, not all materials are created equal. Some organic matter decomposes quickly and easily, while others may take longer or require special conditions. This has led to debates around certain items, such as citrus fruits. These include oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and others, well-known for their vibrant flavors and high vitamin content. But can these be added to your compost heap without complications?

The question of whether you can compost citrus is one that both novice and experienced composters frequently ask. There is considerable confusion and conflicting information surrounding this topic, partly due to the unique composition of these fruits. Citrus fruits are known for their acidic nature and potent, distinctive smells—properties that can lead to certain assumptions about their suitability for compost piles.

This article aims to demystify the topic of composting citrus. It will delve into the science behind citrus composting, address the most common concerns, debunk myths, and provide best practices to incorporate these vibrant fruits into your composting routine. Whether you’re an experienced gardener looking to optimize your composting technique or a beginner wanting to reduce your environmental impact, this comprehensive guide is intended to clarify all your doubts about composting citrus.

Understanding Citrus and Its Composition

Citrus fruits, including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and others, are widely celebrated for their refreshing taste, high vitamin C content, and versatile usage in culinary applications. However, their relevance in the context of composting depends on a deeper understanding of their intrinsic composition, which goes beyond their palatable properties.

At the core, citrus fruits are composed of water, fiber, and a plethora of vitamins and minerals. The water content provides much-needed moisture for compost piles, while the fiber contributes to the ‘brown’ or carbon-rich materials required for composting. Moreover, the nutrient content, especially the abundant potassium and vitamin C, can significantly enrich the resultant compost.

The citrus peels, despite being considered waste in culinary uses, are particularly significant in the composting context. The peels contain concentrated essential oils that give citrus fruits their distinctive, invigorating aroma. Within these oils is a compound known as d-limonene. D-limonene is a natural insecticide that protects the fruit from pests, but it also raises concerns about its potential impact on the beneficial organisms involved in the composting process.

Furthermore, citrus fruits are naturally acidic, with a pH ranging between 2 and 3. This acidic nature stems from the high concentration of citric acid, a trait that has led to concerns about whether citrus fruits could upset the delicate pH balance of compost piles, which are generally neutral to slightly acidic.

Understanding these unique attributes of citrus fruits — their water, fiber, and nutrient content, the presence of d-limonene in the peels, and their acidic pH — is the first step towards comprehending their role in composting and how they can be effectively integrated into the compost pile.

Common Concerns about Composting Citrus

The debate about composting citrus arises from a handful of primary concerns related to the unique composition and characteristics of these fruits. These apprehensions largely pertain to the acidity of citrus, its potential to attract pests, and the impact of the d-limonene present in citrus peels.

  1. Acidic Nature of Citrus: Citrus fruits are well-known for their acidic nature, resulting from their high citric acid content. Compost piles ideally maintain a neutral to slightly acidic pH for optimum decomposition and microbial activity. The addition of citrus fruits, therefore, sparks concerns about upsetting this delicate pH balance, which could potentially impede the composting process.
  2. Potential for Citrus to Attract Pests: Citrus fruits, with their sweet and tangy aroma, could potentially attract a range of pests to the compost pile. These might include fruit flies, rodents, and even larger animals if the compost pile is easily accessible. The strong scent of citrus could make your compost heap more appealing to these unwanted visitors, causing infestations or disturbing the decomposition process.

Here are a few pests that may be attracted to composting citrus:

  • Fruit Flies: These small insects are particularly attracted to the sweet scent of decaying fruit, including citrus.
  • Rodents: Mice and rats might be drawn to the scent of citrus and could burrow into your compost pile.
  • Raccoons: In areas where they are common, raccoons can be attracted to the smell of composting citrus.
  • Ants: Sweet-smelling citrus can attract ants, which might then interfere with the composting process.
  1. Presence of D-limonene: The compound d-limonene, found in citrus peels, acts as a natural insecticide. While it aids the fruit in warding off pests, there are concerns about its effect on beneficial composting organisms. The worry is that d-limonene could potentially harm or repel these organisms, such as compost worms, slowing down or disrupting the composting process.

Understanding these concerns is critical to evaluating the pros and cons of composting citrus and formulating effective strategies to address them.

Benefits of Composting Citrus

Despite the prevalent concerns, composting citrus fruits can offer several advantages that bolster the health of your compost pile and, by extension, the plants that will benefit from it. By taking a closer look at these benefits, we can see that citrus can indeed be a valuable addition to your composting efforts.

  1. Nutrient Richness: Citrus fruits are notably high in essential nutrients, most notably vitamin C and potassium. When composted, these nutrients are broken down and incorporated into the compost, thereby contributing to a nutrient-dense end product. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for plant health, contributing to growth and disease resistance. Potassium, on the other hand, aids in the regulation of water and nutrient movement in plants, contributing to overall plant health and vigor.
  2. Moisture Control: Citrus fruits, being high in water content, can play a vital role in maintaining the moisture balance in your compost pile. The water retained in citrus peels can keep the compost pile moist, which is a crucial condition for microbial activity and the overall composting process. Dry compost piles can lead to slow decomposition, but the addition of moisture-rich citrus can counteract this issue.
  3. Pest Deterrence: While the strong scent of citrus fruits may attract certain pests, it can also play a role in deterring others. Some pests, such as certain types of flies and mosquitoes, are repelled by the strong, citrusy smell. Thus, incorporating citrus in your compost can help keep these pests at bay, protecting your compost pile from unwanted infestations.
  4. Increased Compost Diversity: Diversity is a key aspect of a healthy compost pile. Different types of waste provide different nutrients and create a more balanced and nutrient-rich compost. Citrus peels, with their unique properties and nutrient composition, contribute to this diversity, enhancing the overall quality of the compost.
  5. Waste Reduction: Composting citrus peels reduces the amount of organic waste that ends up in landfills. Citrus peels can take a long time to decompose naturally in a landfill, and their decomposition in an oxygen-poor environment can release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Composting these peels at home is an effective way to reduce methane emissions and contribute to a more sustainable planet.

As we can see, the benefits of composting citrus extend beyond simply disposing of kitchen waste. These fruits can significantly contribute to the quality and effectiveness of your compost, proving their value in the composting process.

Debunking Myths and The Facts About Composting Citrus

Myths and misconceptions often surround the practice of composting, and citrus fruits are no exception to this. To make an informed decision about composting citrus, it’s crucial to separate fact from fiction. Here, we debunk some of the common myths and shed light on the actual facts about composting citrus.

  1. Myth: Citrus kills compost worms
    • Fact: While it’s true that the d-limonene in citrus peels can be harmful to compost worms, it’s crucial to note that this compound breaks down during the composting process. By the time the worms get to the citrus peels, the d-limonene levels have usually diminished significantly. Therefore, citrus won’t necessarily kill your compost worms, particularly if used moderately and balanced with other compost materials.
  2. Myth: Citrus drastically alters compost pH
    • Fact: Yes, citrus fruits are acidic, but they won’t significantly alter the pH of your compost heap. The composting process involves a wide range of microorganisms that function best at different pH levels. These microorganisms work together to break down waste and balance the compost’s pH. Therefore, while citrus might initially lower the compost’s pH, the composting process itself acts as a buffer, bringing the pH back to an optimal level over time.
  3. Myth: Citrus in compost attracts pests
    • Fact: While the strong scent of citrus fruits can attract some pests, it’s the improper management of compost that usually leads to pest problems. Compost piles that are well-maintained, with a proper balance of green and brown materials, adequate moisture, and regular turning, are less likely to attract pests. Cutting citrus into smaller pieces and burying it under other compost materials can further minimize the risk of attracting pests.

Understanding the facts behind these myths can help composters use citrus more confidently and effectively. As with any compost material, success with composting citrus involves understanding its properties, addressing potential concerns, and incorporating best practices.

Can I Compost Citrus, Including Oranges, Lemons, and Grapefruit?

The simple answer is yes, you can compost oranges, lemons, and grapefruits. However, the way you incorporate these into your compost heap or bin can make a significant difference.

Best Practices for Composting Citrus

Effectively composting citrus fruits involves adhering to certain practices that optimize their decomposition and mitigate potential issues. Below are the best practices for composting citrus:

  1. Cut into Small Pieces: A primary step in composting citrus is to cut the peels into small pieces. This accelerates decomposition as it increases the surface area exposed to the composting organisms. Smaller pieces are also less likely to form clumps, promoting better airflow and moisture distribution.
  2. Balance with Other Compost Materials: Citrus should be considered part of a varied compost mix rather than the bulk of your composting material. Balance the addition of citrus with other ‘green’ materials (such as vegetable scraps, coffee grounds) and ‘brown’ materials (like dry leaves, paper, and straw). This approach maintains a balanced carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, which is crucial for optimal composting.
  3. Gradual Addition: When composting citrus, particularly in large amounts, it’s beneficial to add it to your compost pile gradually. This gives the composting organisms time to adapt to the new material and process it effectively.
  4. Bury Citrus Waste: To deter pests that might be attracted to the scent of citrus, bury the peels under other compost materials. This also aids in faster decomposition by placing the citrus peels closer to the central, warmer part of the compost pile where microbial activity is highest.
  5. Maintain Compost Pile Health: Regularly turn your compost pile to maintain good aeration and encourage uniform decomposition. Ensure the pile is adequately moist but not overly wet. These practices aid in the faster decomposition of citrus and prevent problems such as pests and bad odors.
  6. Consider Your Composting Method: The type of composting method you employ can affect how you use citrus. For instance, in a hot composting setup, citrus breaks down quickly due to the high temperatures. In worm composting or vermiculture, use citrus sparingly and observe your worms’ reactions to ensure they aren’t negatively affected. In Bokashi composting, citrus can be used more liberally due to the method’s ability to handle acidic inputs.

By adhering to these best practices, composting citrus can be a fruitful endeavor that contributes valuable nutrients to your compost pile and ultimately, your garden.

Composting Citrus in Worm Bins and Bokashi Systems

Worm composting (vermiculture) and Bokashi composting are two popular composting methods. However, they differ significantly from traditional composting in terms of how they handle citrus. Understanding these differences can help you incorporate citrus effectively, based on the composting method you use.

  1. Worm Composting (Vermiculture): Worm composting is a method that employs specific species of earthworms to consume and decompose organic waste. As beneficial as worms are for composting, they’re sensitive to their environment’s conditions. The acidic nature of citrus and the presence of d-limonene have been said to be potentially harmful to these worms. However, this doesn’t mean that citrus can’t be included in worm composting at all.
    • Best Practices for Composting Citrus in Worm Bins:
      • Add citrus gradually and sparingly. Start by adding a small amount and observe the worms’ reaction.
      • Always bury citrus peels under other compost materials to allow them to start decomposing before the worms encounter them.
      • Balance the addition of citrus with plenty of worm-friendly materials like vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, and shredded paper.
      • Keep a close eye on the bin’s pH. If it appears to be getting too acidic, you can add a handful of crushed eggshells or a sprinkle of garden lime to rebalance the pH.
  2. Bokashi Composting: Bokashi composting is a method that uses a specific group of microorganisms to ferment organic waste, including items that are often difficult to compost at home, like meat and dairy. Bokashi composting is unique in its ability to handle acidic inputs like citrus, due to the fermentative process.
    • Best Practices for Composting Citrus in Bokashi Systems:
      • As Bokashi composting relies on fermentation rather than decomposition, citrus can be added in larger quantities compared to other methods.
      • Still, it’s good practice to cut citrus peels into small pieces to speed up the fermentation process.
      • Balance the addition of citrus with other types of kitchen waste to ensure a nutrient-diverse Bokashi compost.
      • Keep the compost airtight. This anaerobic composting method requires the absence of air to prevent the growth of unwanted organisms and ensure effective fermentation.

In both worm composting and Bokashi systems, citrus can be a valuable addition, providing a range of nutrients and benefits, as long as it is added thoughtfully and with consideration of the system’s specific needs and constraints.


Composting citrus fruits, with their vibrant peels and zesty aroma, can seem like a contentious issue due to various myths and concerns that circulate around this practice. However, as we’ve discovered, citrus can indeed play a beneficial role in composting, contributing valuable nutrients and diversity to our compost piles.

The key to successful composting of citrus lies in understanding the fruit’s composition and its impact on the composting process. Contrary to common belief, the acidity and presence of d-limonene in citrus are not prohibitive factors for composting. In fact, with careful management and adherence to best practices, citrus can be safely composted without harming beneficial compost organisms or significantly altering the compost pile’s pH.

It’s worth noting that different composting methods, such as worm composting or Bokashi systems, require slightly different approaches to composting citrus. Despite these differences, citrus can still be beneficial in these systems when incorporated thoughtfully.

Ultimately, the inclusion of citrus in your compost not only provides a meaningful way to repurpose kitchen waste but also aids in producing a rich, nutrient-dense compost that can significantly contribute to the health and vitality of your garden. So, the next time you enjoy a juicy orange or a tangy lemon, consider giving those peels a second life in your compost pile. The earth and your plants will thank you.

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