Can You Compost Pizza Boxes: Myths, Facts, and Best Practices

  • By: Sam Richards
  • Date: August 4, 2023
  • Time to read: 10 min.

Composting is the transformational process of turning organic material into a nutrient-rich soil conditioner, known as compost. This environmentally friendly process helps to recycle organic waste and contributes to sustainable living by reducing the need for artificial fertilizers and the amount of waste going to landfills. Compost provides significant benefits for soil health, enhancing its structure, fertility, and ability to retain moisture, all while sequestering carbon and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

In today’s waste-conscious society, many people are keen to compost as much of their waste as possible, but there are often questions about what can and can’t be composted. One item of particular interest is the pizza box. With millions of pizzas consumed daily around the globe, a large number of pizza boxes are disposed of, and finding ways to recycle or compost these boxes could have a significant environmental impact.

Can these pizza boxes be composted? If so, how should they be composted, and are there any special considerations to keep in mind? These are the questions we will answer in this comprehensive guide to composting pizza boxes. By exploring the composition of pizza boxes, the challenges they present for composting, and the ways to overcome these challenges, we aim to give you all the information you need to responsibly manage your pizza box waste.

The Composition of Pizza Boxes

To understand whether and how pizza boxes can be composted, it is first necessary to understand their composition. The primary material used in pizza boxes is corrugated cardboard, a choice made for its strength, insulation properties, and cost-effectiveness.

Corrugated cardboard is essentially a sandwich of three layers of kraft paper, an incredibly durable paper made from chemically treated wood pulp. The middle layer is crimped into waves or ‘flutes’, providing extra strength and insulation without significantly increasing weight or material use. This middle layer is then sandwiched between two flat layers, providing a robust, durable container that is perfect for holding and transporting pizzas.

The wood pulp used in corrugated cardboard is biodegradable, derived from organic material. Moreover, pizza boxes usually lack the glossy finishes, plastic coatings, or metallic foils that are often found on other types of food packaging. These elements can prevent or slow down the process of composting. Therefore, in terms of their basic material, pizza boxes are largely compostable.

However, they are often printed with company logos and other information. The inks used for this printing are typically soy-based, which is also biodegradable, although there are exceptions. We’ll delve into this in more detail when we bust some common myths about composting pizza boxes later in the article.

The Challenge of Composting Pizza Boxes

Despite their largely biodegradable composition, pizza boxes present a particular challenge when it comes to composting. The root of the issue lies in the very purpose of the pizza box: to hold a hot, often greasy, food product.

During the delivery or carryout process, pizza boxes frequently become stained with oils, cheese, and other food residues. While the cardboard itself is compostable, these food contaminants can pose problems. In particular, excessive grease and oils can create a barrier that prevents the penetration of water and air, both of which are critical for the composting process. This can slow down the decomposition process and potentially lead to unpleasant odors.

Furthermore, such food residues can attract pests to your compost pile or bin. Pests like rats, raccoons, or insects can not only disrupt the composting process but also create potential health hazards or nuisance issues.

Finally, successful composting relies on maintaining a balanced ratio of ‘green’ materials, which are rich in nitrogen, and ‘brown’ materials, which are rich in carbon. While the cardboard of the pizza box is a great source of ‘browns’, the greasy, food-soiled parts can introduce too much ‘green’ material at once, throwing off the balance and disrupting the composting process.

Thus, despite their generally compostable materials, pizza boxes need special handling due to the challenges associated with food contamination.

How to Properly Compost Pizza Boxes

With an understanding of the challenges presented by pizza boxes, we can now delve into the right methods to compost them. Proper composting of pizza boxes not only ensures successful decomposition but also helps to maintain a healthy, balanced compost pile.

Before you proceed, it’s important to check if your local waste management facility accepts pizza boxes for recycling or composting. If it does, that could be the simplest and most efficient route. However, if composting at home is your preference or if your local facility does not accept soiled pizza boxes, the following steps can guide you.

  1. Inspection and Preparation: Inspect the pizza box thoroughly and remove any heavily soiled or greasy sections. You might find that the bottom of the box, where it has been in direct contact with the pizza, is too soiled to compost. The top and sides, however, are often perfectly compostable. Any parts that are too contaminated with food or grease should be discarded in your regular trash.
  2. Tear it up: To facilitate faster decomposition, tear the clean parts of the pizza box into small pieces before adding them to your compost. Smaller pieces increase the surface area for the composting microorganisms to work on, speeding up the overall process.
  3. Adding to Compost: Remember that in your compost pile, pizza boxes count as ‘brown’ material. To maintain the crucial balance of greens and browns, add an equivalent amount of ‘green’ material such as vegetable scraps, fresh grass clippings, or coffee grounds to your compost pile or bin along with the pizza box pieces. This balanced mix aids in the optimal decomposition process.
  4. Maintenance: Compost needs to be turned regularly to ensure that air circulates evenly throughout the pile, helping to speed decomposition and prevent unpleasant odors. Make sure to turn your compost pile every few weeks after adding pizza box pieces.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your pizza boxes become a valuable addition to your compost rather than a problem. Remember, the key to successful composting lies in balance, whether it’s the balance of green and brown materials or the balance between moisture, air, and temperature. With a little care, you can turn your pizza boxes into black gold for your garden!

Other Composting Options for Pizza Boxes

While home composting is a great way to manage your pizza box waste, there are also alternative methods available that may offer greater convenience or efficiency. Some of these methods may even allow you to compost parts of the pizza box that are more heavily soiled than what home composting methods can accommodate.

  1. Professional Composting Services: Many cities now offer professional composting services as part of their waste management programs. These facilities typically have industrial-grade equipment and processes that can handle a wider range of compostable materials, including pizza boxes with some level of food residue. They use heat and mechanically turn the compost to speed up decomposition and kill any pathogens. If such a service is available in your area, it can be a hassle-free and effective way to compost your pizza boxes.
  2. Vermicomposting: Another alternative method to consider is vermicomposting, which uses worms, typically red wigglers, to consume organic waste and produce a very rich compost known as worm castings. Worms will happily consume the cardboard of pizza boxes, and the heat generated by their activity can help break down the fibers more quickly than in a traditional compost pile. However, it’s still advisable to avoid adding heavily greased sections to a worm bin as it may attract pests and cause a foul odor. Also, because worms prefer a diet with more ‘greens’, pizza boxes should only make up a small portion of what you add to a worm bin.
  3. Community Composting Programs: In some areas, community gardens or farms may have composting programs that accept contributions of compostable materials from local residents. These programs often have dedicated staff or volunteers who manage the compost to ensure optimal conditions, and they may be equipped to handle items like pizza boxes.

In all cases, it’s essential to check with the service or program about what they accept before you contribute your pizza boxes. With these options, you can find a composting method that fits your needs and capabilities, helping you to make the most of your pizza box waste.

Environmental Benefits of Composting Pizza Boxes

The act of composting pizza boxes instead of sending them to the landfill can have several significant environmental benefits, further emphasizing the importance of this waste management approach. Let’s delve into the multiple ways this simple act contributes to environmental sustainability.

  1. Reducing Landfill Waste: One of the most direct benefits of composting pizza boxes is the reduction in waste sent to landfills. Landfills are not only a visual blight, but they also produce significant quantities of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, as organic material decays without oxygen. By composting pizza boxes, we divert waste from landfills and thus reduce the production of landfill methane.
  2. Enriching Soil Naturally: Compost created from pizza boxes and other organic materials can improve the health and fertility of our soils. It introduces vital nutrients, improves soil structure, enhances water retention, and encourages beneficial microbial activity. This reduces our reliance on chemical fertilizers, which can cause environmental harm such as water pollution due to runoff.
  3. Carbon Sequestration: The process of composting also helps in carbon sequestration, i.e., capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide. By adding compost to the soil, we increase its organic matter content and thus its capacity to hold carbon, reducing our overall carbon footprint.
  4. Conserving Resources: By composting, we make use of a resource (the pizza box) that would otherwise go to waste. Moreover, the compost produced can reduce the need for water, fertilizers, and pesticides – further conserving our natural resources.
  5. Promoting Biodiversity: Compost enhances the fertility of the soil, creating a healthy environment for various organisms, from earthworms to bacteria and fungi, all of which play a crucial role in maintaining a balanced ecosystem.
  6. Education and Awareness: Finally, the act of composting pizza boxes can help educate others about the importance of waste reduction and the value of recycling and composting, promoting overall environmental awareness.

In sum, composting pizza boxes offers an easy and effective way for individuals to make a meaningful contribution to environmental sustainability.

Common Myths about Composting Pizza Boxes

Composting pizza boxes is a fairly straightforward process, yet there are several misconceptions that may deter individuals from properly handling this common type of waste. Here, we will dispel some of the common myths surrounding the composting of pizza boxes.

  1. Myth: All parts of the pizza box are equally compostable: While it’s true that the material of pizza boxes is compostable, the food residues often present on the boxes can pose problems, as discussed earlier. Heavy grease stains, leftover cheese, and meat can slow down the composting process and attract unwanted pests. Therefore, it’s important to remove heavily soiled parts before composting.
  2. Myth: Inks on pizza boxes are harmful to compost: This used to be a concern when petroleum-based inks were the standard. However, most pizza boxes today use soy-based inks, which are non-toxic and safe for composting. Still, if you’re unsure about the type of ink used on your pizza box, it’s best to check with the pizza company or remove the printed parts.
  3. Myth: Pizza boxes cannot be composted because they’re contaminated with food: As discussed earlier, it’s the nature and amount of food contamination that matter. While excessive grease or cheese can pose issues, minor food stains are not a problem. Proper preparation and balance in the compost pile can mitigate potential issues.
  4. Myth: Pizza boxes take too long to decompose: Yes, pizza boxes may take longer to decompose compared to other organic materials like fruit and vegetable scraps due to the toughness of the cardboard. However, this process can be expedited by tearing the box into smaller pieces, ensuring proper aeration in the compost pile, and maintaining the right balance of ‘green’ and ‘brown’ materials.
  5. Myth: Composting pizza boxes will attract pests: While improperly composted pizza boxes (particularly those with lots of grease and food residue) can attract pests, correctly composted pizza boxes should not. If your compost pile is well-balanced and regularly turned, and you’ve removed excessively soiled parts of the pizza box, you should not see an uptick in pest activity.

By understanding the facts behind these myths, you can compost your pizza boxes effectively and responsibly, contributing to waste reduction and environmental sustainability.


Composting pizza boxes, though seemingly a small action, is a powerful step towards environmental sustainability. By understanding the composition of these boxes and the specific challenges they present, we can effectively manage this common form of waste in a way that enriches our gardens and reduces our environmental footprint.

While pizza boxes are composed primarily of corrugated cardboard, a material that is biodegradable and generally compostable, the presence of food residues such as oils and cheese can pose challenges to the composting process. These contaminants can slow down decomposition and potentially attract pests.

However, by carefully inspecting and preparing the pizza boxes—removing heavily soiled parts and tearing the rest into small pieces—we can mitigate these issues. Maintaining a balanced compost pile, with the right ratio of ‘green’ and ‘brown’ materials, is also critical to a successful composting process.

Alternative composting methods, such as professional composting services, vermicomposting, and community composting programs, can offer additional options for handling pizza box waste, potentially even accommodating boxes with a higher degree of food contamination.

The benefits of composting pizza boxes are numerous, from reducing landfill waste and greenhouse gas emissions to enriching the soil and promoting biodiversity. Composting also offers a way to educate and raise awareness about sustainable waste management practices.

Despite common misconceptions, pizza boxes can be effectively composted with a bit of knowledge and care. Let’s challenge these myths and embrace composting as a practical, beneficial, and responsible way of dealing with our pizza box waste.

In the face of global environmental challenges, every effort counts. Composting our pizza boxes is a simple yet impactful step we can all take toward a more sustainable future.

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